The 156th Airlift Squadron provides tactical airlift for airborne forces, other personnel, equipment, and supplies. The squadron also provides evacuation of refugees and aeromedical patients within a theater of operations.
The 156th Airlift Squadron is the flying unit assigned to the 145th Airlift Wing.
The 156th received new C-130H Hercules aircraft in 1994, and currently fly the C-17 Globemaster III aircraft which they received in 2018.
On 8 December 1942, as part of the rapidly expanding United States Army Air Corps, the 360th Fighter Squadron was formed and assigned to the 1st Air Force. On 24 May 1946, at the end of World War II, the 360th Fighter Squadron was redesignated the 156th Fighter Squadron and allocated to the National Guard.
On 15 March 1948, almost two years later, the 156th Fighter Squadron was extended federal recognition and the North Carolina Air National Guard was born. The 156th Fighter Squadron was the largest unit assigned to the North Carolina Air National Guard at that time. The 156th Fighter Squadron's first mission aircraft was the P-47 Thunderbolt.